William Gould'''The Rev. William Gould A.M. of Exeter College, Oxford was an English cleric and naturalist.
He was descibed by Horace Donisthorpe as ''"the father of British myrmecology".
He is most famous for his book, "An account of English ants", published in London by A. Millar in 1747. It was the first scientific paper written on ants with 109 pages and brought together all previous observation into a single volume. When it was published it was quite controversial, since Gould, albeit reluctantly, conceeded that his observations directly contradicted the Bible, specifically Proverbs 6:6-8, where it was written: "''Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways and be wise; which having no chief, overseer, or ruler, provideth her bread in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest." Gould, however, correctly stated that there was no evidence at all to suggest that any of the British ant species he knew hoarded grain, and for this reason he faced much criticism from the established church.
His book remains, however, an important early record in ant observation and the science of myrmecology, even though he only recognised a handful of species, which he categoried as "hill ants", "jet ants", "red ants", "common yellow ants", and "small black ants".
His work is divided into four chapters:
- Their different Species and Mechanism
- Their manner of Government, and a Description of their several Queens
- The Production of their Eggs, and Process of the Young
- The incessant Labours of the Workers or common Ants