TesticleThe testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. In mammals, the testicles are paired bodies that are contained within a pouch termed the scrotum.
Like the ovaries to which they are homologous, testicles are members of both the reproductive system (being gonads - see sex organs) and the endocrine system (being endocrine glands). The respective functions of the testicles are:puberty until old-age produce sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules lead to the epididymis, where newly created sperm cells mature, and then into vas deferens (also called the ductus deferens) that opens into the urethra. During sexual intercourse, the sperm cells move through the ejaculatory duct and into the prostatic urethra, where the prostate, through muscular contractions, ejaculates the sperm, mixed with other fluids, out through the penis.
The testicles are well-known to be very sensitive to impact and injury. This has been a rich source of humor for jokes and comedic routines.
The most important diseases of testicles are:
- inflammation of the testicles, called orchitis
- testicular cancer and other neoplasms
- inflammation of the epididymis, called epididymitis
- spermatic cord torsion also called testicular torsion
Both components of the testicle, sperm-forming and endocrine, are under control of gonadotropic hormones - lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), that are produced by the anterior pituitary.