Tehran (also spelled Teheran), population 11,050,000 , is the capital of Iran. More than half of the country's industry is based there. Industries include electrical equipment, textiles, sugar, cement, and motor vehicle assembly. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets. There is an oil refinery nearby.
In the 13th century, following the destruction of the city of Rages by Mongols, many of its inhabitants fled to Tehran. The city served as a residence of the Safavid rulers in the 17th century, and became the capital of Persia in 1788. During World War II, British and Soviet troops entered the city. Tehran was the site of the Teheran Conference in 1943, attended by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Premier Joseph Stalin.
The center of the city is dominated by Maidan-i Sipah Square, south of which is Gulistan Square, where the Peacock Throne of the Persian Shahs can be found. Tehran is the site of the National University, the University of Tehran, a university of technology, a college of fine arts, a military academy, and several religious schools. Tehran is also home to the Tehran Stock Exchange. The TSE is a full member the FIBV a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges.