Specific gravitySpecific gravity is a measure of the density of a material. It is dimensionless, equal to the density of the material divided by the density of water.
Specific gravity is often used by geologists and mineralogists to help determine the mineral content of a rock or other sample. Gemmologists use it as an aid in the identification of gems. The reason that specific gravity is measured in terms of the density of water is because that that is the easiest way to measure it in the field. Basically, density is defined as the mass of a sample divided by it's volume. With an irregularly shaped rock, the volume can be very difficult to accurately measure. About the most accurate way would be to put it in a graduated cylinder that has water in it an see how much water it displaced. Even this method can be rather inaccurate, though, since it is easy to accidentally spill some water. It is far easier to simply suspend the sample from a spring scale and weigh it under water. Solving Newton's equations yields the following formula for measuring specific gravity: