Concept B is a specialization
of concept A if and only if:
- every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and
- there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B.
For instance, 'Bird
' is a specialization of 'Animal
' because every bird
is an animal, and there are animals which are not birds (dogs
In logic, specialisation occurs when you take a statement such as:
- "All cars are red"
And use it to derive statements such as:
- "My car is red"
- "Fred's car is red"
Specialisation is an important way to generate propositional knowledge
, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as "when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor".
Generalization is the opposite of specialisation