Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of a ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.
Formerly the British Somaliland Protectorate, British Somaliland merged with Italian Somaliland in 1960 to form Somalia. The prime minister of British Somaliland, Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal, became a minister in the new republic of Somalia. He became Prime Minister in 1967 but a coup deposed him in 1969. In 1991, after the collapse of the government in Somalia, the territory asserted its independence as the Republic of Somaliland, although it has received little if any international recognition. Egal was elected president in 1993, re-elected in 1998 and remained in power until his death on 3 May 2002. The vice president Dahir Riyale Kahin was declared the new president shortly afterwards.