Rotenburg is a Kreis (district) in the centre of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated roughly half way between Bremen and Hamburg. Area 2070 km², population 161,000 (2001). The district's capital is Rotenburg.
The district was established in 1977 by merging the former districts of Rotenburg and Bremervörde. The Wümme river runs through the district from east to west. The marshy area to both sides of the river is called the Wümmeniederung ("Wümme plains").