Ptolemaic EmpireThe Ptolemaic Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexander's empire.
The Ptolemaic Empire, founded in 323 BC by Ptolemy I, controlled much of modern Egypt and Israel as well as part of the northern coast of present-day Libya. Ptolemy I and his successors formed the Ptolemaic dynasty. The capital of the Ptolemaic Empire was Alexandria, and its most famous monarch was Cleopatra. The Ptolemaic Empire came to an end when Rome annexed Alexandria in 31 BC. Over the subsequent decades all of the former territory of the Ptolemaic Empire was assimilated by Rome.