Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthThe Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations) was a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, between 1569 and 1795, which was governed by an elected monarch.
The term "Commonwealth" is a direct translation the Polish word "Rzeczpospolita", which is also the in the official name of the current Republic of Poland. The contemprorary political doctrine of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, "our state is a Republic under presidency of the King". The commonwealth introduced the doctrine of religious tolerance, had its own parliament, the Sejm, and elected kings that were bound to the contracts "Pacta conventa" from the begining of the reign.
The foundation stones of the Commonwealth, the so called Golden Freedoms, were commonly:
- free election of the king
- "pacta conventa" that were binding for the king
- "rokosz""" the legal rebellion of citizens against the king, that violeted freedom
- "liberum veto" the right to express opposition to the decisions of majority by individual
- "confederatio" the military organisation of the citizens, willing to achieve common political aim.