Newark, New JerseyNewark is a city located in Essex County, New Jersey. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 273,546. It was founded in 1666, is an industrial city ten miles west of New York City, with convenient access to New York by road and rail.
Its location on the Atlantic coast, at the mouth of the Passaic River, has helped make it a major container shipping port. It is perhaps best known as the location of Newark Liberty International (formerly Newark Airport), which was the first airport serving the New York area.
In addition to being an important port, Newark is the headquarters of two major insurance companies.
In the late 19th century Newark was the 4th largest industrial city in the nation. NEwark made everything, from patent leather to beer to automobiles. Although it was overshadowed in terms of industrial might in the early 20th century by cities like Cleveland, Gary, and Detroit, it retained a flourishing industrial complex into the 1950s. Newark peaked in population in 1948, with nearly 420,000 people, making it the 14th largest city in the United States.
In common with many other northern cities, Newark's Black population soared and its job base declined in the post-WWII era. Factories departed for the suburbs or the South, carrying their jobs and tax dollars with them. As mechanization and pesticides spread through the Cotton Belt, millions of Blacks moved to the north, many settling in Newark.
Across administrations, the city leaders of Newark saw the federal government's offer to pay for 100% of the costs of housing projects as a blessing. While other cities were skeptical about putting so many poor and socially dysfunctional individuals together and thus were cautious in building housing projects, Newark avidly pursued federal dollars. By the 1960s, Newark had a higher percentage of its residents living in public housing than any other city.
The 1960s saw the radicalization of Newark's growing Black population. In June 1967 Newark's blacks erupted in riot along Springfield Avenue. Over thirty people were killed, and Newark's reputation went to hell. Tens of thousands of whites moved out. Middle class areas like Weequaic went from middle class white to black poor overnight.
In 1970, Newark had the longest school strike in national history.
Since the 1980s, Newark, one of the poorest cities in the nation, has had one of its best paid mayors, Sharpe James.
Newark is the location of one of the three campuses of Rutgers University; the New Jersey Institute of Technology; Seton Hall University's School of Law; and one campus of University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.2 km² (26.0 mi²). 61.6 km² (23.8 mi²) of it is land and 5.6 km² (2.2 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 8.36% water.
As of the census of 2000, there are 273,546 people, 91,382 households, and 61,956 families residing in the city. The population density is 4,437.7/km² (11,495.0/mi²). There are 100,141 housing units at an average density of 1,624.6/km² (4,208.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 26.52% White, 53.46% African American, 0.37% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 14.05% from other races, and 4.36% from two or more races. 29.47% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 91,382 households out of which 35.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% are married couples living together, 29.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% are non-families. 26.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.8% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.85 and the average family size is 3.43.
In the city the population is spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $26,913, and the median income for a family is $30,781. Males have a median income of $29,748 versus $25,734 for females. The per capita income for the city is $13,009. 28.4% of the population and 25.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 36.6% are under the age of 18 and 24.1% are 65 or older.