Mesopotamia (Greek, "between the rivers") is the alluvial plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (in contemporary Iraq). Writtings from Mesopotamia are the earliest written work in the world, giving Mesopotamia the reputation of being the cradle of civilization.
These civilizations arose from earlier settlements and cultures which were among the first to make use of agriculture.
- neolithic settlements e.g., Jarmo, Tell Abu Hureyra
- Hassuna period
- Halaf period (or Halafian)
- Samarra period (or Samarran), e.g., Choga Mami
- Ubaid period, e.g., Eridu
- Uruk period, named after the city Uruk.
- Sumerian Early Dynastic period