Long divisionIn arithmetic, long division is a method for division of two real numbers. It requires only the means to write the numbers down, and it simple to perform even for large dividends because the algorithm seperates a complex division problem into smaller problems. However, the procedure requires various numbers to be divided by the divisor: this is simple with single-digit divisors, but becomes harder with larger ones.
This is long division notation for 500 ÷ 4 = 125:
1. Write the dividend and divisor in this form:
2. Consider the leftmost digit of the dividend (5). Find the largest multiple of the divisor that is less than the leftmost digit: in other words, mentally perform "5 divided by 4". If this digit is too small, consider the first two digits.
In this case, the largest multiple of 4 that is less than 5 is 4. Write this number under the leftmost digit of the dividend. Write the multiple divided by the divisor (4 divided by 4 = 1) above the line over the leftmost digit of the dividend.