List of Canadian provinces and territories
Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. The major difference between a Canadian province and a Canadian territory is that a province is a creation of the Constitution Act, while a territory is created by federal law. Thus, the federal government has more direct control over the territories, while provincial governments have many more competences and rights.
Provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, having a large measure of control over spending on social programs such as medicare, education, employment insurance, and the like. They receive "transfer payments" from the federal government to pay for these, as well as exacting their own taxes.
Provincial legislatures are unicameral, having no Senate, and operate on a procedure similar to that of the Canadian House of Commons. (The legislature of Quebec is called the National Assembly, that of Ontario is called the Provincial Parliament, and that of Newfoundland and Labrador is called the House of Assembly. The other provinces refer to their legislatures as Legislative Assemblies) The head of government of each province, called the premier, is the head of the party with the most seats. This is also the case in Yukon. The legislatures of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no parties. The Queen's representative to each province is the Lieutenant-Governor; to each territory, the Commissioner.
Provinces, their capitals, and the date that they joined Confederation:
- Alberta - Edmonton - 1905*
- British Columbia - Victoria - 1871
- Manitoba - Winnipeg - 1870*
- New Brunswick - Fredericton - 1867
- Newfoundland and Labrador - St. John's - 1949
- Nova Scotia - Halifax - 1867
- Ontario - Toronto - 1867
- Prince Edward Island - Charlottetown - 1873
- Quebec - Quebec City - 1867
- Saskatchewan - Regina - 1905*