Image antennaIn telecommunication, an image antenna is a hypothetical mirror-image, i.e., virtual-image, of an antenna, i.e., antenna element, considered to extend as far below ground, i.e., the ground plane, as the actual antenna is above the ground plane.
Note 1: The image antenna is helpful in calculating electric field vectors, magnetic field vectors, and electromagnetic fields emanating from the real antenna, particularly in the vicinity of the antenna and along the ground. Each charge and current in the real antenna has its image that may also be considered as a source of radiation equal to, but differently directed from, its real counterpart.
Note 2: An image antenna may also be considered to be on the opposite side of any equipotential plane surface, such as a metal plate acting as a ground plane, analogous to the position of a virtual optical image in a plane mirror.
Note 3: The ground plane need not be grounded to the Earth.