IceniThe Iceni are a Norfolk-based pagan tribe circa Ist century BCE to 1st century CE.
The territory of the Iceni approximated to the borders of modern-day Norfolk. The Iceni are mentioned in Tacitusís Annals which were written in 118 CE but describing the events of 47 CE. Tacitus records how in 47 CE the Iceni revolted against Roman occupation and once again in 60 CE. The events leading up to Queen Boudicca and the Iceni's revolt are as follows-
The tribal ruler Prasutagus attempted to bequeath half of his kingdom to his family, instead of leaving it to the Roman Emperor Claudius . Upon the death of Prasutagus however, Procurator Catus Decianus seized his entire estate. Queen Boudicca (pronounced Boo-dikka) wife of Prasutagus, then led a large-scale revolt against Roman occupation, sacking Colchester, London and Verulamium before finally being defeated and killed at an unknown location somewhere in the East Midalnds.
From the Iceniís defeat the Romans turned the former tribal territory of the Iceni into a Civitas or administrative subdivision. The Ravenna Cosmography, Ptolemyís Geography and the Antonine Itinenary each record that the Roman administrative centre for Norfolk was named Venta Icenorum a settlement a mile or two from the Bronze-age Henge at Arminghall, near the village of Caister Saint Edmunds, some 5 miles south of present-day Norwich.
Archaeological evidence of the Iceni includes Torcs- heavy rings of gold, silver or electrum worn around the neck and shoulders. Of the three different types of Iceni coins found so far the boar-obverse type is most numerous near Norwich. The symbol of a horse found on these coins suggests that it was an animal of particlar significance to the Iceni. Sir Thomas Browne the first British archaeological writer, noted in Urn-Burial, Hydriotaphia (1658) wrote of the Roman occupation, Boudicca and Iceni coins -
- That Britain was notably populous is undeniable, from that expression of Caesar (Gallic War) .That the Romans themselves were early in no small Numbers, Seventy Thousand with their associates slain by Bouadicea, affords a sure account....And no small number of silver peeces near Norwich; with a rude head upon the obverse, an an ill-formed horse on the reverse, with the Inscriptions Ic. Duro.T. whether implying Iceni, Dutotriges, Tascia, or Trinobantes, we leave to higher conjecture...The British Coyns afford conjecture of early habitation in these parts, though the City of Norwich arose from the ruines of Venta, and though perhaps not without some habitation before, was enlarged, builded, and nominated by the Saxons''.
- Tom Williamson -The Origins of Norfolk . Manchester University Press pub. 1993