HDLCHigh Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit oriented Layer 2 protocol. Used by older computers systems to connect to each other. Was imported by the ITU into the X.25 protocol stack. It was modified by IBM to become the SDLC protocol that became the layer 2 protocol for IBM's SNA (System Network Architecture). HDLC is now the basis for synchronous PPP (point to point protocol) used by many servers to connect to a wide area network, most commonly The Internet.
The format of the frame is that it begins and ends with an bit pattern 01111110 or hex 7E called the frame delimiter.
then there is an address and a control field following with a data field that may be 0 to 5000 octets long. Then a Frame Sequence Check FSC is added and then the frame delimiter is added to the end. An important point is that the frame delimiter is then continues to be sent till another frame is sent. This generates a continuous bit pattern that looks like:
0111110011111100111111001111110 _____ ______ ______ ______ _ __ __ __ _This is used by the modems to train and sync their clocks via phase locked loops.