GoguryeoGoguryeo or Koguryo (高句麗; 고구려; pinyin: gao1 gou1 li2) (1st century BC-668) was a kingdom in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It is often referred to as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Baekje and Silla. It was named after Gaogouli (高勾驪; gao1 gou1 li2)', an ancient Chinese prefecture in Xuantu commandry (玄菟) in modern Liaoning province.
According to Samguk Sagi, the legendary King Jumong (posthumously called King Dongmyeongseong) founded the kingdom in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea.
It gained power while China was fragmented.
The maximum extent of the kingdom was reached during the reigns of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu. It was overthrown by an alliance of the Chinese Tang Empire and Silla in 668.
Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts including tomb paintings have been found in North Korea. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at Onyeosan ("Five Maiden Peaks") near Jian in northeast China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo.
The Goguryeo language is unknown except for small number of words, which suggests that it was different from modernKorean or Tungusic languages. Some of these words can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. It is interesting that some words including numerals correspond with Japanese ones.
Both the China and Korea claim Goguryeo as their own. Koreans have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a Korean state. Most of the Chinese historians had agreed to the Korean view until 1980's. But recently China has launched a project to treat Goguryeo as a local government within China to maintain political stability of Manchuria.