FalangeFalange was a fascist organization which constituted the official single party in Spain between 1939 and 1975. A Falangist (Spanish: Falangista) is a member of this party.
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2 Spanish Civil War
5 See also
6 External link
Falange was a small party founded in the 1930s by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, a lawyer son of former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, and by Onésimo Redondo and others. It united with several other small parties, becoming Falange Española de las JONS (Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista), or "Spanish Phalanx of the Assemblies of National-Unionist Offensive".
During the Second Spanish Republic, its gunfighters became involved in street shootings with leftist revolutionaries. The results of the party in the elections were always very poor.
In July, 1936, when Primo de Rivera was arrested, the party joined the conspiracy to overthrow the Republic. in July 17, the African army led by Franco rebelled. In July 18, right-wing forces in mainland Spain followed suit.
Spanish Civil War
During Spanish Civil War, the Falangists fought on the "nationalist" side against the Republic. In November 20, 1936, Primo de Rivera was murdered by leftists assaulting the prison. His death gave him martyr status for the Falangists.
After Franco seized power, he united Falange with the Carlist Monarchist Comunión Tradicionalista, forming Falange Española Tradicionalista de las JONS (FET de las JONS). Those who opposed, like Francisco Hedilla, were suppressed. It was also known as Movimiento Nacional.
After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology to hold together Franco's regime. It became the typical cursus honorum for ambitious politicians. Those new converts were called camisas nuevas ("new shirts") in opposition to the "old shirts" from before the war.
Falange developed youth organizations (Flechas, Pelayos; compare to Hitlerjugend and Italian Balilla and Arditi), a female section (Sección Femenina) led by José Antonio's sister, that instructed young women on how to be good patriots, good Christians and good wives. Falange seized the property of opposition parties and trade unions.
Falangist ministers had an important role in early Franquism, but after the opening to the United States and the Spanish Miracle, Franco turned to Opus Dei and younger politicians.
After Franco's death, the democratization led by Adolfo Suárez, a former chief of the Movimiento, atomized Falange. For the first elections in 1977, three different groups fought at court for the right to Falange's name. Virtually left out of the political mindshare, Falangist inspired parties (some claiming the heritage of Hedilla) are only seen publically in State-funded TV election advertisements and during demonstrations on historic dates.