Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of Norfolk
is the Premier Duke of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel
, the Premier Earl. He also holds the hereditary position of Earl Marshal
, which has the duty of organizing state openings of parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard
The present Duke of Norfolk holds the subsidiary titles of Earl of Arundel (which makes him also the Premier Earl of England), Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk, Lord Beaumont, Baron Fitzalan, Baron Maltravers, and Baron Howard of Glossop.
Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy (died 1107). Their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II then created his brother Thomas of Brotherton earl in 1312. It passed to his daughter Margaret, and then to her grandson Thomas Mowbray.
When King Richard II created Thomas Mowbray duke in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles (including Earl Marshal) that had belonged to the Bigod earls. His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, and so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life.
Thomas Mowbray was the 1st Duke of Norfolk, but John Mowbray, the 4th duke, died without male issue in 1476 (his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne), and there was no duke until John Howard (descended from Thomas Mowbray through his elder daughter Margaret) was created 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483. These are the men who have held the title of Duke of Norfolk:
Dukes of Norfolk (Peerage of England, 1st Creation)
- Thomas Mowbray (1365-1399), created 1st Duke of Norfolk (1397)
- John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1392-1432), brother, recognized as 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1425)
- John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1415-1461), son, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1432)
- John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1444-1476), son, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1461)
Dukes of Norfolk (Peerage of England, 2nd Creation)
- Richard, Duke of York (1473-1483), younger son of King Edward IV, who married the 4th Duke's only daughter. created Duke (1477)
Dukes of Norfolk (Peerage of England, 3rd Creation)
- John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1430-1485), descendant of Thomas Mowbray, created 1st duke of the new creation in 1483. He was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
- Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443-1524), son, restored as 2nd duke in 1514
- Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473-1554), son, succeeded as 3rd duke in 1524. Two of his nieces, Catherine Howard and Anne Boleyn, became wives of Henry VIII. The Dukedom was forfeit in 1547, just before Henry's death, but he was restored in 1553 on Mary I's accession to the throne.
- Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1536-1572), grandson, succeeded as 4th duke in 1554. He forfeited the Dukedom in 1572, shortly before his execution for treason.
- Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk (1627-1677), great-great-grandson, restored as 5th duke in 1660
- Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1628-1684), brother, succeeded as 6th duke in 1677
- Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk (1655-1701), son, succeeded as 7th duke in 1684
- Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683-1732), nephew, succeeded as 8th duke in 1601
- Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685-1777), brother, succeeded as 9th duke in 1732
- Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk (1720-1786), descendant of 7th duke, succeeded as 10th duke in 1777
- Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk (1746-1815), son, succeeded as 11th duke in 1786
- Bernard Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (1765-1842), 3rd cousin, succeeded as 12th duke in 1815
- Henry Charles Fitzalan-Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk (1791-1856), son, succeeded as 13th duke in 1842
- Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk (1815-1860), son, succeeded as 14th duke in 1856
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk (1847-1915), son, succeeded as 15th duke in 1860
- Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk (1908-1975), son, succeeded as 16th duke in 1915. He died without male issue and was succeeded by his distant cousin in all titles except for the Barony of Herries of Terregles, in which he was succeeded by his 1st daughter and heir of line.
- Miles Francis Stapleton Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk (1915-2001) succeeded as 17th duke in 1975. He was the great-grandson of the second son of the 13th Duke of Norfolk.
- Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (b. 1956), succeeded as 18th duke in 2001. He and his family live at Arundel Castle, Sussex.
Henry Miles Fitzalan Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (b. 1987) is his son and heir.
See also: Arundel Castle, Bungay Castle, Framlingham Castle, Glossop