Conventional Egyptian chronologyThis is a conventional chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in that time. See also Egyptian chronology, Pharaoh.
Even within a single work, often archeologists will offer several possible dates or even several whole chronologies as possibilities. Consequently, there may be discrepancies between dates shown here and in articles on particular rulers. Often there are also several possible spellings of the names.
The dates of Dynasties 1 to 10 are from Baines and Malek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford, 1980).
The dates of Dynasties 11 to 20 are from Kitchen, “The Basics of Egyptian Chronology in Relation to the Bronze Age”, in Astrom (ed) High, Middle or Low (Gothengurg, 1987), taking his low chronology.
The dates of Dynasties 21 to 26 are from Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1973, Warminster).
(This information has been supplemented from The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford, 2000), and Digital Egypt for Universities, which was developed by The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology.)
It should be noted that there is a 60 year discrepancy between the dates proposed by these two authors. There is no attempt to remove this in the combined chronology presented below, which is the “Conventional Chronology” that is quoted by David Rohl in A Test of Time (1995, Century).
All dates BC
= Early Dynastic Period =
Possible Kings of Dynasty 0
1st Dynasty 2920-2770
2nd Dynasty 2770-2650
= Old Kingdom =
=First Intermediate Period=
In the kinglist summaries from the third century BC historian Manetho, this is a group of 70 kings ruling 70 days: there is no evidence for this - it may be a later literary metaphor for chaos at the end of the Sixth Dynasty, chaos for which there is also no direct contemporary evidence.
Kings with Unknown Position
9th and 10th Dynasty 2135-1986
11th Dynasty (continued)
=Second Intermediate Period=
21 kings for about 63 years then
Then 6 more kings for about 20 years
About 76 minor kings of the Delta, contemporary with the second half of the 13th dynasty.
15th Dynasty 1633-1525
32 minor kings contemporary with the 15th and 17th dynasties.
17th Dynasty 1606-1539
About 15 kings in all, contemporary with the 15th dynasty, the last three being
=Third Intermediate Period=
Tanite 21st Dynasty
Theban 21st Dynasty
26th Dynasty (continued)