CommonwealthThe English noun "Commonwealth" dates originally from the fifteenth century and in different contexts indicates one of:
- a nation, state or political unit
- a state founded on law by agreement of the people for the common good
- a republic
- a federated union of constituent states.
The term also served when the Australian colonies federated to form the 'Commonwealth of Australia' in 1901. The design of the Australian government blends the US-style republican senate and British parliamentary systems, though in the Australian context the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act made it clear that the federation existed as a constitutional monarchy, with the federal state and the individual states each directly linked to the British monarch, and each of which possesses a representative of the Crown.
Various states have used the title "commonwealth" since that time.
When capitalised, "Commonwealth" refers to the Commonwealth of Nations - formerly the "British Commonwealth" - a loose confederation of nations formerly members of the British Empire (with some exceptions). The Commonweath's membership involves both republics and monarchies: the head of the Commonwealth of Nations is Queen Elizabeth II, who reigns as monarch directly in a number of states, notably the United Kingdom, Canada, Jamaica, Australia and New Zealand, among others.
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2 States that use the name Commonweath
3 External links
Commonwealth is the direct translation of the official name of Republic of Poland (" Rzeczpospolita ").
It is inherited after the federal country formed by Poland and Lithuanía 1569-1795. In contemprorary political doctrine of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, "our state is a Republic (Commonwealth) under presidency of the King". The commonwealth introduced the doctrine of religious tollerance, had its own parliament "Sejm" and elected kings, that were bond to the contracts "Pacta conventa" from the begining of the reign. The foundation stones of the Commonwealth (so called Golden Freedom) used to be
- free election of the king
- "pacta conventa" that were binding for the king
- "rokosz""" the legal rebellion of citizens against the king, that violeted freedom
- "liberum veto" the right to express opposition to the decisions of majority by individual
- "confederatio" the military organisation of the citizens, willing to achieve common political aim.
States that use the name Commonweath
- Commonwealth of England - historic name of England when ruled by Oliver Cromwell and his successors from 1649 to 1660.
- Commonwealth of Independent States - an association of most of the former republics of the Soviet Union.
- The U.S states of Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Virginia call themselves commonwealths.
- Puerto Rico (associated with the US) and the Northern Mariana Islands (in political union with the US) are commonwealths of the United States (these unincorporated territories have a separate and unique status from that of the other four US commonwealths which are part of the US and actually possess US statehood).
- Australia uses the official style: The Commonwealth of Australia.
- The Bahamas has the official name: The Commonwealth of the Bahamas.
- Dominica has the official name: Commonwealth of Dominica.