|Name, Symbol, Number||Bromine, Br, 35|
|Group, Period, Block||17 (VIIA), 4 , p|
|Density, Hardness||3119 kg/m3 (300 K), NA|
|Appearance||Gas: red-brown |
solid: metallic luster
|Atomic weight||79.904 amu|
|Atomic radius (calc.)||115 (94) pm|
|Covalent radius||114 pm|
|van der Waals radius||185 pm|
|Electron configuration||[Ar]33d10 4s24p5|
|e- 's per energy level||2, 8, 18, 7|
|Oxidation states (Oxide)||±1,5 (strong acid)|
|State of matter||liquid (nonmagnetic)|
|Melting point||265.8 K (19 °F)|
|Boiling point||332 K (138 °F)|
|Molar volume||19.78 ×1010-3 m3/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||15.438 kJ/mol|
|Heat of fusion||5.286 kJ/mol|
|Vapor pressure||5800 Pa at 280.1 K|
|Speed of sound||206 at 293.15 K|
|Electronegativity||2.96 (Pauling scale)|
|Specific heat capacity||480 J/(kg*K)|
|Electrical conductivity||no data|
|Thermal conductivity||0.122 W/(m*K)|
|1st ionization potential||1139.9 kJ/mol|
|2nd ionization potential||2103 kJ/mol|
|3rd ionization potential||3470 kJ/mol|
|4th ionization potential||4560 kJ/mol|
|5th ionization potential||5760 kJ/mol|
|6th ionization potential||8550 kJ/mol|
|7th ionization potential||9940 kJ/mol|
|8th ionization potential||18600 kJ/mol|
|Most Stable Isotopes|
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.|
Notable CharacteristicsBromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature. It is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures in a red vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strong disagreeable odor. A halogen, bromine resembles chlorine chemically but is less active (it is more active than iodine however). Bromine is very soluble in water or carbon disulfide (forming a red solution). It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action.
Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water. It reacts vigorously with amines, alkenes and phenols as well as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones and acids (these are brominated by either addition or substitution). With many of the metals and elements, anhydrous bromine is less reactive than wet bromine; however, dry bromine reacts vigorously with aluminum, titanium, mercury as as well as alkaline earth and alkaline metals.
Elemental bromine is used to manufacture a wide variety of bromine compounds
used in industry and agriculture. Traditionally the largest use of bromine was
in the production of ethylene dibromide which in turn was used as a gasoline anti-knock agent for leaded gasolines before they were largely phased out due to environmental considerations.
Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizes, inorganic bromides for photography, etc.
Bromine (Gr bromos for stench) was discovered by Antoine Balard in 1826 but was not produced in quantity until 1860.
Bromine occurs in nature as bromide salts in very diffuse amounts in crustal rock. Due to leaching bromide salts have accumulated in sea water
(85 ppm), and may be economically recovered from brine wells and the Dead Sea (up to 5000 ppm).
Approximately 500 million kilograms ($350 million USD) of bromine are produced per year (2001) worldwide with the United States and Israel being the primary producers.
Elemental bromine is highly toxic, and touch or breathing more than trace amounts (10 ppm) can cause immediate health problems or death. Bromine is very irritating to both eyes and throat produces painful sores after making contact with skin. Improper handling of this element can be a serious health hazard requiring maximum safety precautions.