Battle of Poltava
The Battle of Poltava was a battle between the armies of Peter I of Russia and Charles XII of Sweden on July 8, 1709. The decisive victory of the Russians is said to have ended Sweden's role as a major power in Europe.
After Peter had managed to retaken Livonia and established a new city Saint Petersburg there, Charles was promped to make the fatal decision to attack the Russian heartland with an assault on Moscow. Once again, harsh climactic conditions took their toll, this time on Charles as he marched his troops through the Ukraine. By the time they reached Poltava, Charles had been wounded, one-third of his infantry was dead, and his reinforcements held back by Cossack raiders. The battle was a disaster, and Charles fled south to the Ottoman Empire.