Australian Labor PartyThe Australian Labor Party or ALP is Australia's oldest political party. It is so-named because of its origins in and close links to the trade union movement. While Australians normally spell "Labour", in the name of the party it is spelt "Labor". This spelling was adopted in 1912 due to the influence of the American labor movement.
The ALP was the world's first successful Labor party, first forming a minority national government in May, 1904, and forming its first majority government in 1910. Labor became a Federal Party when the former colonies of Australia federated in 1901. Separate Labour parties had been established in the colonies (now states) during the formative decade of the 1890s.
The party has historically been committed to socialist economic policies, but, while supporting national wage fixing and a strong welfare system, it did not nationalise private enterprise - an attempt to nationalise the banking system in the 1940s was ruled unconsititional by the High Court of Australia. In the 1970s and beyond, the party, through the efforts of Gough Whitlam and his supporters within the party, gave up its old-guard socialist views and became essentially a social democratic party (though some references to socialism still remain in the party's constitution, they are purely relics and reflect the views of a tiny minority of the party's members, let alone its broader support base). Indeed, during the 1980s the party was responsible for the introduction of many economic policies such as privatization of government enterprises, and deregulation of many previously tightly-controlled industries, which are normally the province of conservative governments.
The Labor Party has suffered three major splits throughout its history. In 1915 over the issue of conscription (the then-leader Billy Hughes supported conscription, but the majority of the party did not support it), in 1931 over economic issues revolving around how to handle the depression (split between those who believed in radical-left economic policy such as NSW Premier Jack Lang and Federal Treasurer Ted Theodore, the centrists led by Prime Minister James Scullin and Federal MP Ben Chifley and the fiscal conservatives led by Federal MP Joseph Lyons). In both of those instances, the Labor Party was splintered by the warring factions, and kept out of power for decades by infighting, but the most devestating split was the 1954 split on communism.
Ironically, the pre-war Labor Party was often a development ground for conservative leaders. Conservative Prime Ministers Joseph Cook, Billy Hughes and Joseph Lyons were all ex-members of the Labor Party, with both Billy Hughes and Joseph Lyons holding very senior positions in the party (Prime Minister and Premier respectively).
During the 1950s the issue of communism caused great internal conflict in the Labor party; many believed that it was being infiltrated by Communists and Soviet agents. A large catholic, anti-communist faction split from the ALP to form the Democratic Labor Party (DLP). Its intellectual figurehead was Bob Santamaria. The DLP was heavily influenced by Catholic social teachings and had the support of the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne. (The Catholic Archdiocesse of Sydney, however, was opposed to the DLP, and continued to support the ALP.) The DLP helped the Liberal Party of Australia remain in power for almost two decades but the DLP was successfully undermined by the Whitlam Labor Government during the 1970s and ceased to exist as a parliamentary party after the 1974 election.
The Labor party is infamous for its relatively visible and clearly institutionalised system of factions. These sub-groupings within the party only encompass a small fraction of the membership, but, through strong norms of loyalty, wield almost all of the power. The nature of the factions is constantly changing, and there are separate groupings within each State. Currently, the two largest factions are the Labor Right and the Socialist Left.
ALP federal leaders
- John Christian Watson 1901-08 (Prime Minister 1904)
- Andrew Fisher 1908-15 (Prime Minister 1908-09, 1910-13, 1914-15)
- William Morris Hughes 1915-16 (Prime Minister 1915-23, expelled from Labor Party 1916)
- Frank Tudor 1916-22
- Mathew Charlton 1922-28
- James Scullin 1928-35 (Prime Minister 1929-32)
- John Curtin 1935-45 (Prime Minister 1941-45)
- Ben Chifley 1945-51 (Prime Minister 1945-49)
- Dr Herbert Evatt 1951-60
- Arthur Calwell 1960-67
- Gough Whitlam 1967-77 (Prime Minister 1972-75)
- Bill Hayden 1977-83
- Bob Hawke 1983-91 (Prime Minister 1983-91)
- Paul Keating 1991-96 (Prime Minister 1991-96)
- Kim Beazley 1996-2001
- Simon Crean Since 2001
- Bob Carr (Current Premier of New South Wales)
- Peter Beattie (Current Premier of Queensland)
- Steve Bracks (Current Premier of Victoria)
- Mike Rann (Current Premier of South Australia)
- Geoff Gallop (Current Premier of Western Australia)
- Jim Bacon (Current Premier of Tasmania)
- Clare Martin (Current Chief Minister of the Northern Territory)
- Jon Stanhope (Current Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory)
- Anderson Dawson (Premier of Queensland 1899 - world's first leader of the parliamentary socialist government.
- Jack Lang (Premier of New South Wales from 1925-27, 1930-32)
- Neville Wran (Premier of New South Wales, 1976-86)