Armia KrajowaArmia Krajowa (Home Army) was the underground military organization in occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from the fall of 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. The Home Army was the largest underground resistance army during World War 2. It formed the armed wing of what is now refferred to as the undergound state (państwo podziemne).
-The AK originated from the Sluzba Zwyciestwu Polski (Polish Victory Service), created in late September 1939 by Gen. Michael Torkarzewski-Karaszewicz. That December, Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski replaced this organization with the Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej (Union for Armed Struggle), which became the AK in February 1942. The AK's first commander was Stefan Rowecki (known as Grot, or "arrowhead"), until his arrest; he was succeeded by Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, from July 1943 until the latter's capture in September 1944. The last commander was Leopold Okulicki, known as Niedzwiadek ("bear cub").
-The executive branch of the AK was the operational command, which was composed of many units. Estimates of the AK membership in the first half of 1944 range from 250,000 to 350,000, with more than 10,000 officers. Most of the other Polish underground armies were incorporated into the AK, including the Bataliony Chlopskie (Peasants' Battalions), a large military organization of the Stronnictwo Ludowe (People's Party); the Socjalistyczna Organizacja Bojowa (Socialist Fighting Organization), established by the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party); the Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa (National Army), established by the Stronnictwo Narodowe (National Party); and, from March 1944, part of the extreme right-wing organization, the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (National Armed Forces).
- NARODOWE SIŁY ZBROJNE - The NSZ was an underground nationalistic and anti-Semitic organization in Poland. Its purpose was to fight the occupying forces and eliminate minorities. The NSZ murdered hundreds of Jews who sought refuge among the Poles. After Poland's liberation, the NSZ struggled against the new regime, while continuing to murder Holocaust survivors.
-The AK divided itself organizationally in Poland into sixteen regional branches, subdivided in turn into eighty-nine inspectorates, which were further divided into 278 districts. The supreme command defined the main tasks of the AK as preparation for action and, after the termination of the German occupation, general armed revolt until victory. Power was then to be seized in Poland by the delegatura establishment, the representatives of the London-based polish government-in-exile; and by the government-in-exile, which would return to Poland.
- WARSAW UPRISING - Initiated by the Polish resistance organization, the Armia Krajowa, (Home Army) the Warsaw Uprising took place in 1944. Its purpose was to free Warsaw before the entrance of the Soviet Red Army. While a few hundred prisoners were liberated from the Gesia St. concentration camp, the Germans defeated the rebels and burned the city
-While the AK did not engender a general revolt, its forces were responsible for intensive economic and armed sabotage. In 1944, it acted on a broad scale, one of its operations being the Warsaw Uprising, which broke out on August 1, 1944, and was quelled by the Germans only on October 2. AK units carried out thousands of armed raids and daring intelligence operations, bombed hundreds of railway shipments, and participated in many partisan clashes and battles with the German police and Wehrmacht units.
-Attitude Toward Jews - In February 1942, the Operational Command of the AK Information and Propaganda Office created the Section for Jewish Affairs, directed by Henryk Wolinski. This section collected information about the situation of the Jewish population, on the basis of which reports were drafted and sent to London. It also centralized contacts between Polish and Jewish military organizations. AK organised also financial aid for Jews (see Zegota). Only a few Jews (about one thousand) were accepted into the ranks of the AK, which generally turned down Jewish applicants. The AK provided the Warsaw ghetto with about sixty revolvers, several hundred hand grenades, and ammunition and explosives. During the Warsaw ghetto uprising, AK units carried out holding actions outside the ghetto walls, and together with GL forces were sporadically attacking German sentry units near the ghetto walls. One AK unit (KB, 'korpus bezpieczeństwa') took direct part in fights inside the ghetto. 3 out 7 members of Collective Commandement of AK (KG AK), were of Jewish origins.