4th millennium BC(5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - other millennia
- City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC).
- Naqada culture on the Nile, 4000-3000 BC.
- Civilization of Crete (38th century BC).
- Civilization of Sumeria, cities-state (36th century BC).
- First to Fourth dynasty of Kish in Mesopotamia.
- Beginning of desertification of Sahara ( 35th century BC).
- Unification of Egypt, 3100 BC.
- Beginings of urbanisation in Mesopotamia with the Sumerians.
- First cities in Egypt (35th century BC).
- First writings in the cities of Uruk and Susa (cuneiform writings). Hieroglyphs in Egypt.
- Potter's wheel used in Middle East.
- Sails used in the Nile.