49 BCCenturies: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century
- January 1 - The Roman Senate receives from Julius Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. The Senate responds that Caesar must immediately surrender his command.
- January 10 - Julius Caesar lead his army across the Rubicon, which separates his jurisdiction from that of the Senate, and thus initiates a civil war
- June 7 – Cicero slips out of Italy and goes to Salonika.
- August 24 - Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba of Numidia in the Battle of the Bagradas River.
- Gaius Curio (suicide)