Events and Trends
- Invention of the telephone (1876) and phonograph (1877). See also the History of Science and Technology.
- Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). Reunification of Germany and Italy. France becomes a Republic.
- Continuing expansion of the British Empire; beginning of the New Imperialism.
- Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary)
- Emperor Wilhelm I (Germany)
- Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (Germany)
- King Victor Emmanuel II (Italy)
- King Umberto I (Italy)
- Pope Pius IX
- Pope Leo XIII
- Emperor Alexander II (Russia)
- Queen Victoria (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (United Kingdom)
- President Ulysses S. Grant (United States)
- President Rutherford B. Hayes (United States)