- Neolin begins to preach.
- January 4 - England declares war on Spain & Naples
- July 17 - Catherine II becomes empress of Russia upon the murder of Peter III of Russia.
- Empress Go-Sakuramachi ascends to the throne of Japan
- May 19 - Johann Gottlieb Fichte, philosopher (+ 1814)
- August 12 - King George IV of the United Kingdom
- September 11 - Joanna Baillie, Scottish poet, dramatist (+ 1851)
- October 23 - Samuel Morey, American inventor
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
- Sweden - Adolf Frederick of Sweden King of Sweden (reigned from 1751 to 1771)