- Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star is published, in France
- January 16 - British capture Pondicherry, India from the French
- May 3 -*August von Kotzebue - German Dramatist.
- November 4 - Bertrand Andrieu - French engraver of medals.
- December 1 - Marie Tussaud - French Waxwork modeller
- Christian Hendrik Persoon - Mycologist.
- Henry Shrapnel - British Army officer and inventor.
- Tokugawa Ieshige - Shogun.
- April 4 - Theodore Gardelle - Swiss enameller
- April 7 - Thomas Bayes - British mathematician and Presbyterian minister, noted for Bayes' theorem
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
- Sweden - Adolf Frederick of Sweden King of Sweden (reigned from 1751 to 1771)