- March 20 - The "Great Fire" of Boston destroys 349 buildings.
- July 8 - French and Indian War: Battle of the Ristigouche - British defeat French forces in last naval battle in New France.
- October 25 - George III of the United Kingdom ascends to the throne.
- Russian army briefly occupies Berlin and Koenigsberg.
- May 10 - Johann Peter Hebel, poet (+ 1826)
- September 14 - Luigi Cherubini, Italian composer
- December 13 - James Scarlett Abinger
- Karl Bottiger
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
- Sweden - Adolf Frederick of Sweden King of Sweden (reigned from 1751 to 1771)