- March 17 - St. Patrick's Day is celebrated in New York City for the first time (at the Crown and Thistle Tavern).
- May 15 - Seven Years' War: The war begins when England declares war on France.
- January 27 - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer
- February 6 - Aaron Burr, Vice President of the United States (+ 1836)
- September 7 - Willem Bilderdijk, author (+ 1831)
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- France - Louis XV King of France (reigned from 1715 to 1774)
- Great Britain - George II King of Great Britain (reigned from June 11, 1727 to October 25, 1760)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
- Sweden - Adolf Frederick of Sweden King of Sweden (reigned from 1751 to 1771)