- While in debtor's prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). Released from prison, the book was published in London, England. Immediately, the Church of England asked the British Secretary of State to "stop the progress of this vile Book, which is an open insult upon Religion and good manners." As a result, Cleland was arrested and charged with "corrupting the King's subjects."
- May 19 - King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
- July 9 - Naval settlement of Halifax, Nova Scotia founded as British answer to Louisbourg.
- January 13 - Friedrich Müller, painter, narrator, lyricist and dramatist, also known as Maler Müller (+ 1825)
- January 29 - King Christian VII of Denmark (+ 1808)
- March 9 - Honore Mirabeau, politician (+ 1791)
- March 23 - Pierre Simon de Laplace, mathematician and astronomer (+ 1827)
- May 17 - Edward Jenner, inventor of the vaccine (+ 1823)
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- France - Louis XV King of France (reigned from 1715 to 1774)
- Great Britain - George II King of Great Britain (reigned from June 11, 1727 to October 25, 1760)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)