- January 8 - Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Stirling
- January 24 - King Gustav III of Sweden
- April 16 - Battle of Culloden brings an end to the Jacobite Rebellions.
- January 12 - Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Swiss pedagogue (+ 1827)
- March 30 - Francisco Goya, painter (+ 1828)
- September 28 - Sir William Jones, discoverer of the Indo-European languages family.
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- France - Louis XV King of France (reigned from 1715 to 1774)
- Great Britain - George II King of Great Britain (reigned from June 11, 1727 to October 25, 1760)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)