- August 4 - Freedom of the press: New York Weekly Journal writer John Peter Zenger is acquitted of seditious libel against the royal governor of New York, on the basis that what he published was true.
- Carolus Linnaeus publishes his System of Nature
- End of the reign of Emperor Nakamikado of Japan
- Emperor Sakuramachi ascends to the throne of Japan
- January 1 - Paul Revere (silversmith, United States patriot).
- October 30 - John Adams, later 2nd President of the United States.
- December 31 - Jean de Crévecoeur, French-American writer (+ 1813)
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- France - Louis XV King of France (reigned from 1715 to 1774)
- Great Britain - George II King of Great Britain (reigned from June 11, 1727 to October 25, 1760)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)