- January 1 - John V becomes King of Portugal.
- March 26 - The Act of Union with Scotland becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country.
- April 25 - Allied austriacist army is defeated by borbonic army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
- May 1 - Union of the Parliaments of Scotland and England forms the Kingdom of Great Britain (See: 1707 Act of Union).
- October 23 - First Parliament of Great Britain.
- February 1 - Frederick, Prince of Wales
- February 25 - Carlo Goldoni, playwright
- April 15 - Leonhard Euler, (Swiss mathematician)
- April 22 - Henry Fielding, author (+ 1754)
- May 23 - Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (+ 1778)
- August 25 - King Louis of Spain
- September 7 - Georges-Louis Leclerc, (French philosopher and "Comte de Buffon")