- February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland.
- February 18 - Fort St. Louis is established by a Frenchman at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France's claim to Texas.
- June 20 - James, Duke of Monmouth illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland declares himself King and heir to his father's Kingdoms as James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland, after already forming his own armie and campaigning against his uncle.
- July 6 - Battle of Sedgemoor between the armies of King James II of England and rival claimant to the throne James, Duke of Monmouth. The last battle on English soil. Monmouth's army is defeated and the Duke himself is captured shortly after the battle.
- July 15 - In England, James, Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, after he was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemore.
- October - Louis XIV declares the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and declares Protestantism illegal.
- February 23 - George Friderich Handel, composer
- March 21 - Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer
- April 15 - Empress Catherine I of Russia
- October 1 - Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
- October 26 - Domenico Scarlatti, composer