- Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary.
- The Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb destroys several Hindu temples and banned the whole religion, so Hindus rebel.
- Antonio Stradivari makes his first violin
- Famine in Bengal kills 3 million people
- The Hanseatic League, formed 400 years ago, holds its final meeting
- Ottoman Turks take Candia, the Venetians lose Crete
- September 10 - Henrietta Maria, Dowager Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, Princess of France and Navarra
- October 4 - Rembrandt, Dutch painter.
- October 14 - Marc Antonio Cesti, Italian musical composer.
- Pieter Cuypers
- Algemeene Verhandeling van de bloedeloose dierkens by Jan Swammerdam, groundbreaking work in microscopy as well as entomology
- Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch das ist by Hans von Grimmelshausen, the first major German novel
- Tyrannic Love by John Dryden
- Tartufffe by Molière
- Britannicus by Jean Racine