- May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth.
- 24-year war between France and Spain ends with French acquisition of Roussillon and most of Artois under the Treaty of the Pyrenees (November 7).
- The Spanish Infanta Maria Theresa brings cocoa to Paris
- Diego Velazquez's portrait of Infanta Maria Theresa is first exhibited
- Thomas Hobbes publishes De Homine
- Parisian police raid a monastery, sending monks to prison for eating meat and drinking wine during lent
- Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer