- France joins England in the war against Spain, which began in 1654. The Spanish were defeated at the Battle of the Dunes in June. England was then given Dunkirk for their assistance in the win.
- May 1 - Publication of Urn-Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne
- September 3 - Richard Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- The peace between Sweden and Denmark was concluded in Roskilde.
- March 5 - Antoine de la Mothe, Le Sieur de Cadillac, explorer
- September 25 - Mary of Modena, Queen Consort of King James II of England