- January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. His widow Henrietta Maria resides in her native France.
- January 30 -The Commonwealth of England, a republican form of government, replaces the monarchy as the form of government of England and later of Scotland and Ireland. Members of the Long Parliament serve as government.
- January 30 - Prince Charles Stuart declares himself King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. At the time all three Kingdoms had not recognized him as ruler.
- February 5 - In Edinburgh, Scotland claimant King Charles II of England is declared King in his absence. Scotland is the first of the three Kingdoms to recognize his claim to the throne.
- March 11 - The Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government sign the Peace of Rueil.
- April 9 - James Scott later as James, Duke of Monmouth claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.