- January 4: Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. Beginning of English Civil War.
- March 1: Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine) becomes the first incorporated city in America
- May 17 - Sieur de Maisonneuve founds the Ville Marie de Montréal.
- July: Charles I besiges Hull in an attempt to gain control of its arsenal.
- October: Battle of Edgehill.
- The Dutch drive Spain from Taiwan.
- The first recorded sighting of New Zealand and Tasmania by Abel Tasman.
- Blaise Pascal produces a mechanical adding machine (the "Pascaline").
- Claudio Monteverdi's opera l'Incoronazione di Poppeia is first performed.
- First Battle of Lostwithiel