- February 22 - Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published
- July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe.
- November 16 - Battle of Lützen
- Christina becomes queen of Sweden
- Antigua and Barbuda is first colonized by England
- October 20 - Sir Christopher Wren (architect, astronomer, mathematician).
- November 24 - Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher
- November 28 - Jean Baptiste Lully, French composer