- March 24 - King James VI of Scotland succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I as king James I of England.
- Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Mehmed III (1595-1603) to Ahmed I (1603-1617)
- Johann Bayer's Uranometria, an atlas of the southern sky, is published.
- Tokugawa Ieyasu granted title of shogun from the emperor of Japan and establishes the Edo or Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo, Japan. This ends the Azuchi-Momoyama period and begins the Edo period.
- Accademia dei Lincei founded
- Denis Gaultier - A French lutenist and composer.