- January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I
- April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. Considered the end of the French Wars of Religion.
- May 2 - Peace of Vervins - End of war between France and Spain
- September 25 - Battle of Stšngebro. The Catholic King Sigismund of Sweden and Poland is defeated in his attempt to resume control of Sweden by the Protestant forces of his uncle, Charles Albert. Sigismund is deposed shortly thereafter.
- April 23 - Maarten Tromp, Dutch admiral
- July 31 - Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini, sculptor