- Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. They proclaim the deposition of the King, and acclaim the imprisoned Cardinal de Bourbon as the rightful King of France, calling him Charles X. The King makes peace with his old rival, Henry of Navarre, and together they besiege Paris.
- Marks the start of absolutism in Western Europe.
- August 2 - Henry III of France is murdered by a fanatical Catholic monk. Henry of Navarre proclaims himself as King Henry IV of France. As many of the late King's troops refuse to support a Protestant, Henry is forced to give up the siege of Paris.
- September 21 - Battle of Arques - King Henry's forces defeat the forces of the Catholic League under Duke Charles of Mayenne (younger brother of the Duke of Guise)
- November 1 - Henry IV of France is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League
- Tibet, Birth of Yönten Gyatso, 4th Dalai Lama Buddhism
- Russia, Moscow becomes an independent patriarchate Orthodoxy
- Hiroshima, Japan founded