- January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland
- February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15, skipping over 10 days. Other countries follow at various later dates.
- Tibet, Foundation of Kumbum
- China, Matteo Ricci s.j. is allowed to enter in China
- Incident of Honnoji in Kyoto, Japan