- February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope
- The first book in Slovenian, Cattechismus and Abecedarium, written by Protestant reformer Primoz Trubar, is printed in Tübingen, Germany.
- Nostradamus' first almanac is written.
- April 22 - Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England (+ 1604)
- June 27 - King Charles IX of France
- October 4 - King Charles IX of Sweden
- John Napier, Scottish mathematician