- January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort.
- March 30 - Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
- May 23 - King Henry VIII of England marriage with Catherine of Aragon officially declared annuled.Catherine refuses to accept and continues to believe herself the wife of Henry till her death.
- Russia, Ivan IV succeeds his father Vasili III as Grand Prince of Muscovy at 3 years old.
- Peru, Inca Ataualpa pays Francisco Pizarro ransom of approx. $100 million in gold; Pizarro executes him anyway.
- Peace treaty divides Hungary between Suleiman I and King Ferdinand
- February 28 - Michel de Montaigne, French author of Essays.
- September 7 - Princess Elizabeth Tudor, later Queen Elizabeth I of England.
- December 13 - King Eric XIV of Sweden
- - Birth of William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje) leader of Netherlands.
- Lucas van Leyden artist
- Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy