- January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. Peace between Francis I of France and Charles V. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.
- May 22 - Francis repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including the Pope, Milan, Venice, and Florence.
- July 24 - Milan is captured by the Spanish
- August 29 - Battle of Mohacs. The Turkish army of Sultan Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army of King Louis II, who is killed in the retreat. Suleiman takes Buda, while Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zapolya, Prince of Transylvania, dispute over the succession.
- Dubrovnik independent republic under Turk power
- Sweden First official translation of the New Testament of the Bible to Swedish (cf 1541)
- Far East